from cv_bridge import CvBridge, CvBridgeException - Imports cv_bridge to allow changing between ROS messages and images that can be altered with OpenCV.
ROS and OpenCV
CvBridge() - Instantiates a new bridge object.
bridge.imgmsg_to_cv2(image_msg, "bgr8") - Converts the image message into an OpenCV image.
bridge.cv2_to_imgmsg(image_cv) - Converts the OpenCV image into an image message.
cv2.imread('example.jpg') - Reads an image that can be edited using OpenCV. The parameter is the image file.
cv2.imshow('image', img) - Displays an image in a window. First parameter is the window name, second is the image.
cv2.imwrite('image.png',img) - Saves an image. First parameter is the file name, second is the image to be saved.
cv2.waitKey(0) - Waits indefinitely for a key stroke. Needed to process many other GUI events, so is necessary to display the image.
cv2.destroyAllWindows() - Destroys all windows created by OpenCV.
Other OpenCV functions
cv2.line(img ,(0,0), (100,100), (255,0,0), 5) - Draws a line on img, that begins at (0,0) and ends at (100,100), with color (255,0,0) (blue, since it's BGR), and thickness of 5 px.
cv2.rectangle(img, (0,100), (150,0), (0,255,0),2) - Draws a rectangle on img with the top left corner at (0,100) and bottom right corner at (150,0), with color (0,255,0) (green) and thickness of 2px.
cv2.resize(img, (int (img.shape/4)), (int (img.shape/4))) - Resizes img to be a 1/4th its width (img.shape) and 1/4th its height (img.shape).
cv2.putText(img, 'hello', (150,150), textFont, 5, (255,255,255), 2, cv2.LINE_AA) - Puts the text "hello" on img at (150,150) (bottom-left corner), in font textFont with scale 5, in color (255,255,255) (white), with thickness of 2 px and lineType of cv2.LINE_AA.
cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_BGR2HSV) - Converts img from the BGR color space to HSV.
cv2.inRange(hsvImage, lower, upper) - Thresholds the HSV image to get only the colors that fall within the lower and upper bounds, where lower and upper are numpy arrays that specify HSV values.
cv2.bitwise_and(img, img, mask=imgMask) - Masks the original image with imgMask being the result of cv2.inRange().
cv2.findContours(img,cv2.RETR_TREE, cv2.CHAIN_APPROX_SIMPLE) - Finds contours. First parameter is the source image, second is contour retrieval mode, and third is contour approximation method. Returns the modfied image, the contours, and hierarchy.
cv2.drawContours(img, [cont], 0, (0,255,0),3) - Draw contours on img in the color (0,255,0) (green) with thickness of 3px. [cont] is a list of the contours, and 0 is the index of contours (for drawing individual ones). To draw all contours, pass -1 as the third argument.